Published at Sunday, August 11th 2019. by Images Collector in Bathroom.
The Roman attitudes towards bathing are well documented; they built large thermal baths (thermae), marking not only an important social development, but also providing a public source of relaxation and rejuvenation. Here was a place where people could meet to discuss the matters of the day and enjoy entertainment. During this period there was a distinction between private and public baths, with many wealthy families having their own thermal baths in their houses. Despite this they still made use of the public baths, showing the value that they had as a public institution. The strength of the Roman Empire was telling in this respect; imports from throughout the world allowed the Roman citizens to enjoy ointments, incense, combs, and mirrors. The partially reconstructed ruins can still be seen today, for example at Thermae Bath Spa in Bath, England, then part of Roman Britain.
Most handles in homes are fastened to the valve shafts with screws, but on many commercial and industrial applications they are fitted with a removable key called a "loose key", "water key", or "sillcock key", which has a square peg and a square-ended key to turn off and on the water; the "loose key" can be removed to prevent vandals from turning on the water.Before the "loose key" was invented it was common for some landlords or caretakers to take off the handle of a tap, which had teeth that would meet up with the gears on the valve shaft. This tooth and cog system is still used on most modern taps. "Loose keys" may also be found outside homes to prevent passers-by from using them.
The washstand was a bathroom sink made in the United States in the late 18th century. The washstands were small tables on which were placed a pitcher and a deep bowl, following the English tradition. Sometimes the table had a hole where the large bowl rested, which led to the making of dry sinks. From about 1820 to 1900 the dry sink evolved by the addition of a wooden cabinet with a trough built on the top, lined with zinc or lead. This is where the bowls or buckets for water were kept. Splashboards were sometimes added to the back wall, as well as shelves and drawers, the more elaborate designs usually placed in the kitchen.
For baths and showers, mixer taps frequently incorporate some sort of pressure balancing feature so that the hot/cold mixture ratio will not be affected by transient changes in the pressure of one or other of the supplies. This helps avoid scalding or uncomfortable chilling as other water loads occur (such as the flushing of a toilet). Rather than two separate valves, mixer taps frequently use a single, more complex, valve controlled by a single handle (single handle mixer). The handle moves up and down to control the amount of water flow and from side to side to control the temperature of the water. Especially for baths and showers, the latest designs are thermostatic mixing valves that do this using a built-in thermostat, and can be mechanical or electronic. There are also faucets with color LEDs to show the temperature of the water.
Foot controlled valves are installed within laboratory and healthcare/hohspitals, as well as in industrial settings where extremely dirty hands operating taps might leave residues on them.
Solid-surface plastic materials allow sinks to be made of the same plastic material as the countertop. These sinks can then easily be glued to the underside of the countertop material and the joint sanded flat, creating the usual invisible joint and completely eliminating any dirt-catching seam between the sink and the countertop. In a similar fashion, for stainless steel, a sink may be welded into the countertop; the joint is then ground to create a finished, concealed appearance.
Pottery is made by a blend of clays, fillers and fluxes being fused together during the firing process. There are high fire clays and glazes which are heated to over 1200 °C (2200 °F) and are extremely resistant to fading, staining, burning, scratching and acid attack. Low fire clays, fired below 1200 °C, most often used by large commercial manufacturers and third world producers, while durable, are susceptible to scratching and wear over time. The clay body is first bisqued to about 1000 °C (1900 °F). In the second firing a white or coloured glaze is applied and is melted by heat which chemically and physically fuses the glass (glaze) to the clay body during the same firing process. Due to the firing process and natural clays used, it is normal for the product to vary in size and shape, and +/− 5 mm is normal.
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