Published at Saturday, September 14th 2019. by Images Collector in Bathroom.
Taps are normally connected to the water supply by means of a "swivel tap connector", which is attached to the end of the water pipe using a soldered or compression fitting, and has a large nut to screw onto the threaded "tail" of the tap, which hangs down underneath the bath, basin or sink. A fibre washer (which expands when wet, aiding the seal) is used between the connector and the tap tail. Tap tails are normally 1⁄2 " or 12 mm in diameter for sinks and 3⁄4 " or 19 mm for baths, although continental Europe sometimes uses a 3⁄8 " (still imperial) size. The same connection method is used for a ballcock.
The washstand was a bathroom sink made in the United States in the late 18th century. The washstands were small tables on which were placed a pitcher and a deep bowl, following the English tradition. Sometimes the table had a hole where the large bowl rested, which led to the making of dry sinks. From about 1820 to 1900 the dry sink evolved by the addition of a wooden cabinet with a trough built on the top, lined with zinc or lead. This is where the bowls or buckets for water were kept. Splashboards were sometimes added to the back wall, as well as shelves and drawers, the more elaborate designs usually placed in the kitchen.
Hot tubs are common heated pools used for relaxation and sometimes for therapy. The "hippie" era (1967–1980) popularized them in America in songs and movies.
A bathroom is a room in the home or hotel for personal hygiene activities, generally containing a toilet, a sink (basin) and either a bathtub, a shower, or both. In some countries, the toilet is usually included in the bathroom, whereas other cultures consider this insanitary or impractical, and give that fixture a room of its own. The toilet may even be outside of the home in the case of pit latrines. It may also be a question of available space in the house whether the toilet is included in the bathroom or not.
Wood sinks are from the early days of sinks and baths were made from natural teak with no additional finishing. Teak is chosen because of its natural waterproofing properties – it has been used for hundreds of years in the marine industry for this reason. Teak also has natural antiseptic properties, which is a bonus for its use in baths and sinks.
Though the installation requirements of each of shower will differ, the installation of a shower in general requires the laying of several water transportation pipes, including a pipe for hot water and for cold water, and a drainage pipe. It is important that the wet areas of a bathroom be waterproof, and multiple layers of waterproofing can be employed. Grout is used to fill gaps between tiles, but grout and tile setting materials are generally porous. Tiles are generally waterproof, though a shower pan must be installed beneath them as a safety to prevent water leakage. Thus small mosaic tiles offer less of a defense than large format tiles. Sub-tile waterproofing is important when tiles are being used. Best practice requires a waterproofing material to cover the walls and floor of the shower area that are then covered with tile, or in some countries with a sheet material like vinyl.
Bathroom lighting should be uniform, bright and must minimize glare. For all the activities like shaving, showering, grooming etc. one must ensure equitable lighting across the entire bathroom space. The mirror area should definitely have at least two sources of light at least 1 feet apart to eliminate any shadows on the face. Skin tones and hair color are highlighted with a tinge of yellow light. Ceiling and wall lights must be safe for use in a bathroom (electrical parts need to be splash proof) and therefore must carry appropriate certification such as IP44. All forms of bathroom lighting should be IP44 rated as safe to use in the bathroom.
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